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    • 澳大利亚拖车牵引安全指南A GUIDE TO SAFE TOWING

      安全牵引指南

      澳大利亚拖车牵引安全指南A GUIDE TO SAFE TOWING

      Safe Towing Load

      安全牵引负荷

      The Legal Requirements

      法律要求

      There are guidelines set out to make towing as safe as possible for the benefit of all people travelling on Australian roads.  Failure to strictly comply with the legal requirements can result in loss of insurance, warranty and not to mention the compromised safety of yourself and your loved ones.  

      For the ease and relevance to this article, a caravan will be the example of a tow load in place of a trailer.

      为了让所有在澳大利亚道路上行驶的人都能受益,制定了尽可能安全的牵引指南。不严格遵守法律要求会导致保险、保修的损失,更不用说你和你所爱的人的安全受到损害了。

      ATM - Aggregate Trailer Mass (total weight)

      ATM-拖车总量(总重量)

      This is the total mass of a fully loaded, unhitched/free standing caravan including water, fuel storage and even luggage.  The ATM stamped on the Compliance Plate of your caravan is the maximum total allowable weight legally permitted by the manufacturer and must not exceed the towing capacity of the tow vehicle.  A trip to your local weigh bridge will accurately measure your ATM.

      这是一辆满载、未挂接/独立的拖挂房车的总质量,包括水、燃料储存甚至行李。在你的车队的合规板上盖章的ATM是制造商允许的最大允许的总重量,并且不能超过牵引车的牵引能力。去当地的地磅会精确测量你的拖车总

       

      GTM - Gross Trailer Mass (total weight less tow ball weight)

      GTM-拖车总重量(总重量减去牵引球重量)

      This is the total weight remaining on your caravan axle/s when it is fully loaded and connected to your car (not including the weight of your car).  The car will generally take a minimum 10% of the load of your caravan weight (ATM) when connected, so your GTM will therefore always be slightly lighter than your ATM.  As the GTM is the remaining weight on the caravan axle/s, this weight must not exceed the rating for the axle/s brakes fitted. If it does then larger brakes may be required to make it legal.

      这是满载并与您的汽车相连时,您的旅行车车轴上剩余的总重量(不包括您的汽车重量)。当连接时,汽车通常至少要承受拖车重量(ATM)的10%,因此您的GTM将始终比您的ATM稍轻。由于GTM是拖车轮轴上的剩余重量,因此该重量不得超过所安装轮轴制动器的额定值。如果是这样的话,可能需要更大的刹车来使其合法化。

       

      TARE (nett weight)

      总质量(净重)

      Think of your Tare weight as the weight from factory as built, this means before you fill your water water tanks, fuel storage containers and load your caravan up with luggage, tools food and cutlery etc.

       把你的皮重想象成工厂制造的重量,这意味着在你装满水箱、燃料储存容器、把你的旅行车装满行李、工具、食物和餐具等之前。

      GVM - Gross Vehicle Mass (total vehicle weight)

      GVM-车辆总质量(车辆总重量)

      This is the maximum weight of your fully loaded tow vehicle only, set by the vehicle manufacturer.


      这是您的全负荷拖车只有由车辆制造商设置的最大重量。

       

      澳大利亚拖车牵引安全指南A GUIDE TO SAFE TOWING

      GCM – Gross Combination Mass (total vehicle and caravan weight)

      GCM–总组合质量(车辆和拖挂房车总重量)

      This is the maximum weight of your fully loaded tow vehicle and caravan combined, set by the vehicle manufacturer.

       这是最大的重量,你的全负荷拖车和车队组合,由车辆制造商设置。

      TW – Tongue Weight and is also referred to as Tow Ball Weight (caravan weight on tow ball)

      TW——牵引球承载重量(拖车球上的拖车重量)

      Refers to the weight your caravan puts on the tow ball of your car.  This can be measured by using a tow ball scale or calculated by subtracting the GTM from the ATM.  Tongue weight is usually at least 10% of your total fully loaded caravan weight (ATM) as a general rule of thumb.  Insufficient Tow Ball weight is a major cause of uncontrolled caravan swaying and should be checked before travelling, loading your caravan heavily towards the rear can easily cause this.

       指的是你的车队在你的车的牵引球上的重量。这可以通过使用拖球秤来测量,也可以通过从ATM中减去GTM来计算。一般来说,舌头的重量至少是满载商队重量(ATM)的10%。牵引球重量不足是导致拖挂房车不受控制地摇晃的主要原因,在行驶前应进行检查,将拖挂房车沉重地向后方装载很容易造成这种情况。

      In a nutshell…

      简而言之…

      Putting all this into practice means reading the compliance plate of both your vehicle and caravan and making sure the numbers stack up according to manufacturer’s specifications.  If you are over loaded on your caravan, it is sometimes possible for an authorised caravan manufacturer/repairer to increase the ATM and GTM of a caravan by assessing the axle group and possibly upgrading the size of the electric brakes to make it compliant.  It is not possible to increase the tow vehicles GVM, GCM or maximum tow rating (a smaller than maximum rated tow bar may already be fitted which could be upgraded to the maximum allowable).   

      The tow vehicle rating and specifications should be the first consideration when planning to tow a caravan, it will determine what size and weight caravan it can safely tow eliminating the possibility of potential accidents even the most experienced caravanners cannot avoid.

      把这一切付诸实践意味着阅读你的车辆和商队的合规牌照,并确保号码按照制造商的规格堆积起来。如果您的拖挂房车超载,授权的拖挂房车制造商/维修商有时可以通过评估车轴组和可能升级电动制动器的大小来增加拖挂房车的ATM和GTM,使其符合要求。不可能增加拖车GVM,GCM或最大拖缆额定值(小于最大额定拖杆可能已经安装,可以升级到最大允许)。


      牵引车的等级和规格应是计划牵引拖挂房车时的首要考虑因素,它将确定可以安全牵引的拖挂房车的大小和重量,消除潜在事故的可能性,即使是最有经验的拖挂房车司机也无法避免。

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